2013年7月5日 星期五

長州五傑英國留學一百五十週年

維基百科,自由的百科全書
長州五傑指的是日本江戶時代末期長州藩政府秘密派往英國留學的五位藩士,包括伊藤博文山尾庸三井上勝井上馨遠藤謹助。他們均在後來明治維新和之後的明治政府中發揮了重要作用。
1863年,五人在英國駐日領事Anthony James Gower和怡和洋行橫濱機構的幫助下,化裝為英國水手到達上海,然後,藏在一艘鴉片船中,再分為兩組,跨海抵達英國,入讀倫敦大學學院。導師為亞歷山大·威廉·威廉姆遜
伊藤博文和井上馨因國內發生與英法美荷4國戰事,於1864年回國調停。伊藤後曾擔任日本首相。井上馨曾任外交等部大臣。
山尾庸三後轉到格拉斯哥,半工半讀。1868年回國,曾任工部大臣、法制局長官,創建了東京大學工學院前身,並擔任日本工學會會長36年。在日本創辦了第一所聾啞學校。
遠藤謹助於1866年回國,曾任造幣局長。
井上勝於1868年回國,是日本鐵道之父。



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The Chōshū Five (長州五傑 Chōshū Goketsu?) were members of the Chōshū han of western Japan who studied in England from 1863 at University College London under the guidance of Professor Alexander William Williamson. It was still illegal to leave Japan when they left, as the seclusion policy (sakoku) was still enforced until the Meiji Restoration.

Contents

Voyage to Britain

A Mr. Weigal, Jardine Matheson's manager in Yokohama, put the Chōshū youths, disguised as English sailors, aboard a reluctant Captain J. S. Gower's vessel at 1000 ryō each, bound for Shanghai where they were sheltered on an opium storage ship before dividing into two groups for the long voyage to London.
When they reached London the Chōshū students were introduced by William Matheson to Professor Alexander Williamson.
Inoue Kaoru and Itō Hirobumi, destined to be two of the greatest Japanese statesmen of the age, worked as deckhands aboard the 1500 ton steamer Pegasus on the voyage to Europe. They also returned earlier than the other three when they realised that the Chōshū clan was in danger of attack by the Western allied powers for trying to close the Straits of Shimonoseki to foreign shipping.

Identity of the Chōshū Five

New Film

A movie entitled Chōshū Five[citation needed] was released in Japan in January 2007. Chōshū Five received the Grand Remi Award at the WorldFest-Houston International Film Festival.

See also

External links

 英國「倫敦大學學院」(UCL),日前舉行儀式,紀念日本第一批到英國念書的留學生,也就是日本史上所稱的「長州五傑」,到英國留學一百五十週年。而有趣的是,「長州五傑」當年是偷渡離開日本,到英國去唸書的。
在日本史上,第一批到英國去留學的「長州五傑」當中,最有名的應該是日本史上第一位首相「伊藤博文」。而除了「伊藤博文」之外,其他的四個人,也都成了日本明治維新的推動者,也先後出任明治天皇政府的重要官員,或是成為日本重要的企業家。
英國廣播公司(BBC)報導說,大約有一百多名英國與日本學界、企業界,還有日本駐英國大使館官員,參加了這次的紀念儀式。甚至日本首相安倍晉三,也去函感謝倫敦大學學院,

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