A declining Japan loses its once-hopeful champions
A declining Japan loses its once-hopeful champions
Yuriko Nakao/Reuters -
A woman passes a restaurant in Tokyo's Harajuku shopping
district on Oct. 26, 2012. Japan remains mired in deflation, price data
showed on Friday, piling pressure on the central bank to deliver more
stimulus next week to keep the world's third-largest economy from
sliding into recession.
TOKYO — Jesper Koll, an economist
who’s lived in Japan for 26 years, says it’s not easy for him to keep
faith in a country that’s shrinking, aging, stuck in protracted economic
gloom and losing fast ground to China as the region’s dominant power.
“I am the last Japan optimist,” Koll said in a recent speech in Tokyo.
Indeed, the once-common species has been virtually wiped out.
It was only two decades ago that Japan’s boosters — mainly foreign
diplomats and authors, economists and entrepreneurs — touted the tiny
nation as a global model for how to attain prosperity and power.
the group has turned gradually into nonbelievers, with several of the
last holdouts losing faith only recently, as Japan has failed to carry
out meaningful reforms after the March 2011 triple disaster.
mass turnabout has helped launch an alternative — and increasingly
accepted — school of thought about Japan: The country is not just in a
prolonged slump but also in an inescapable decline.
frequent evidence for that in economic data, and in the country’s
destiny to become ever-smaller, doomed by demographics that will shrink
the population from about 127 million today to 47 million in 2100,
according to government data.
The current doom is a sharp reversal
from several decades ago, when Japanese companies bought up Columbia
Pictures and Rockefeller Center, and Americans argued whether Japan was
to be feared or envied.
Like a separate but related group, known
as “Japan bashers,” the optimists were bullish about Japan’s future as
an economic powerhouse. But unlike the bashers, who viewed Japan as a
dangerous challenger to the United States, the optimists saw Japan as a
benevolent superpower — rich but peaceful, with a diligence worth
Now, when Japan is discussed, it’s instead for its
unenviable fiscal problems — debt, rising social security costs,
flagging trade with China because of an ongoing territorial dispute.
not Japan, is mentioned in U.S. presidential debates and described as
the next threat to American supremacy. Japan’s government has announced
record quarterly trade deficits while some of its iconic companies — Sony and Sharp — have announced staggering losses.
2050, Japan “will be the oldest society ever known,” with a median age
of 52, according to the recent book “Megachange,” published by the Economist magazine.
Even over the next decade, Japan’s aging population will drag down the
gross domestic product by about 1 percent every year. That will further
strain Japan’s economy, which in 2010 lost its status as the world’s
second-largest, a position now claimed by China.
“If you speak optimistically about Japan, nobody even believes it,” Koll
said. “They say, ‘Oh, in 600 years there will be 480 Japanese people
left. The Japanese are dying out and debt is piling up for future
generations.’ Japan is an easy whipping boy.”
Now a pessimist
Japan optimism became a mainstream movement with the 1979 publication of “Japan As No. 1,”
an international bestseller that described the way a country the size
of Montana had come to make cars as well as the Germans, watches as well
as the Swiss and steel as well as the Americans — in more efficient
plants. Japan’s people worked hard, its government guided the economy,
and its streets were clean and crime-free.
“Japan has dealt more successfully with more of the basic problems of
postindustrial society than any other country,” wrote author Ezra
Vogel, a sociologist at Harvard.
But Vogel, who has lived for several periods in Japan, and has
traveled here at least once a year since 1958, says he, too, has become a
pessimist. Most Japanese still have a comfortable life, he says, but
the political system is “an absolute mess,” juggling prime ministers
almost every year. The youngest generation, its expectations sapped by
years of deflation, “doesn’t have the excitement about doing things
Even the promise of lifetime employment and tight cooperation
between government and corporations has backfired, leaving a
bureaucracy-enforced status quo that makes it hard for established
companies to reform and for smaller, more creative companies to emerge.
I did not foresee is that the slowdown would be such a challenge — that
many of the things that worked so well on the way up . . . would be so difficult on the way down,” Vogel said.
Vogel, still a professor emeritus at Harvard, says he has switched his focus in the past five years to China. A disturbing trend
For more than a decade after Vogel’s book was published, his
predictions seemed prescient. Between 1980 and 1990, Japan’s national
wealth nearly tripled. Real estate prices in downtown Tokyo skyrocketed
so high that analysts said the land under the Imperial Palace was worth
more than the state of California. Japanese companies bought up American
landmarks, and some policymakers feared Japan was challenging U.S.
supremacy, particularly by using protectionist trade policies that
blocked American products.
Vogel credited Japan’s success in part
to its willingness to study others. He described a nation obsessed with
overseas travel: Students went to American universities, national sports
coaches studied the training programs in other countries, trade
ministry bureaucrats went on missions to Europe to hone policies. Japan
even had programs in five foreign languages available on its national
But today, former Japan optimists see a
disturbing trend. Fewer Japanese, they say, want to interact with the
rest of the world, and undergraduate enrollment of Japanese students at
U.S. universities has fallen more than 50 percent since 2000. The
generation now entering Japan’s job market is described by older workers
here as risk-averse and unambitious, with security and comfort their
“They have just given up trying to be number one”
said Yoichi Funabashi, former editor in chief of the Asahi Shimbun
newspaper and chairman of the Rebuild Japan Initiative. “People think
you just cannot beat China, so don’t even try. But that’s bad, because
if you don’t train yourself on the international scene, you don’t . . .
sharpen your edge. And you become more inward-looking. There’s a sense
in Japan that we are unprepared to be a tough, competitive player in
this global world.”
Japan is famous among historians for its
sudden transformations, re-engaging with the world in the mid-19th
century after two centuries of isolation, later moving toward the
militarism that helped launch World War II. After the mega-disaster last
year, Japanese hoped for another transformation, with the
reconstruction of a tsunami-battered region prompting a broader
political and economic overhaul.
But Japanese increasingly feel that hasn’t happened, according to a recent Pew Research Center poll.
Just 39 percent now say that last year’s disaster has made Japan a
stronger country, compared with 58 percent in a similar survey taken
right after the earthquake and tsunami. (According to the same survey,
released in June, 93 percent of the Japanese public describe the current
state of the economy as bad.)
Global sentiment has swung so far against Japan, the last few optimists now relish the chance to make a case on Japan’s behalf.
Japan is commonly thought to be a “Detroit-like zone” with little
chance for economic growth, former Sony chief executive Nobuyuki Idei
said in an interview, the country still has a chance to prosper if it
can tap into Asia’s booming economies as a trade partner or investor.
Tokyo-based venture capitalist Yoshito Hori said that Japan’s many
strengths are often overlooked, because Japanese prefer self-criticism
“The value of Japan is, even when we do something good, we rarely say it,” Hori said.
the Chinese achieve something, they say, ‘We have done this.’ ”
Japanese must learn to do the same, Hori said, “otherwise, we will lose
our position globally.”
That’s partly why Koll, a JPMorgan Japan manager, decided this summer to give a TED talk — the common name for a series of pop-education speeches — in which he described his reasons for being the last optimist.
has the world’s most competent financial regulator, Koll said, and a
per capita GDP several times that of China. Real estate prices are back
down to 1981 levels — “wealth destruction has been tremendous,” he said —
but Japan has weathered this while still retaining its social cohesion
and relative quality of life, with an unemployment rate of just
But Koll also admitted in his speech that being bullish on Japan is tantamount to saying Elvis is still alive.
have changed,” he said. “When I first got here, I had conversations
with people who said, ‘Oh, you’re so lucky to speak Japanese, because
we’ll all be working for the Japanese soon.’ You know, those are the
things they’re saying about China now.”